Учебно-методический комплекс для слушателей заочного обучения методические указания и контрольные работы icon

Учебно-методический комплекс для слушателей заочного обучения методические указания и контрольные работы



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Read and retell the text


THE WORK OF MILITIA


Our militia was created by the working people to protect their rights. The officers of our militia have always displayed courage and heroism in the fight against enemies of our state during the Great Pa­triotic War as well as in the years of peaceful construction.

The main aim of militia has always been to maintain public order, to protect state and personal property and safeguard the rights of our citizens. Nowadays great attention in the work of militia is paid to pre­vention of crime, to its suppression. But if a crime has been committed, the militia officers are to solve the crime as quickly as possible. To fulfil these tasks the organs of internal affairs are composed of different departments.

The Criminal Detection Department is one of the most compli­cated militia services.'The main responsibility of the officer of the Criminal Detection Department is to detect the criminal, that is to lo­cate and apprehend him. In many cases the detective must trace a fugi­tive who is hiding.

The officers of the Criminal Investigation Department collect facts to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspect. The final test of a crimi­nal investigation is in presentation of evidence in court. Corpus delicti must be established, the defendant must be identified and associated with the crime scene. The investigator must also provide competent witnesses.

Economic Crimes Department fights against those who don't want to live an honest life The responsibility of the officers of this Department is to reveal the criminal activity of those who commit embezzlement and other economic crimes, bring them to justice.

The State Auto-Inspection is responsible for traffic regulation and, safety on the roads.

The Transport Militia maintains law and order on the railway, air lines and water ways of the country.

The Juvenile Inspection handles «difficult» juveniles and their careless parents. They also do much work to prevent juvenile delinquency.

The Correctional System is supposed to rehabilitate offenders through labour. This is the purpose of correctional establishments.

A new service for the fight against organized crime has been cre­ated in our militia. Organized crime operates on fear, bribery and force. Militia officers of organized crime department are devoting their efforts to collect sufficient evidence to bring gang leaders to justice.


Some new words to the text:


to create

[kri'eit]

– творить, создавать

to protect

[prOtekt]

– защищать, ограждать

to commit

[kO'mI:t]

– совершать

to commit a crime




– совершать преступление

to detect

[di'tekt]

– разыскивать, обнаруживать

to locate

[lou'keit]

– определять местонахождение

to trace

[treis]

– следить, выслеживать

fugitive

['fju:Gitiv]

– беглец

to hide

[haid]

– прятаться, скрываться

to prove

[pru:v]

– доказывать

guilt

[gilt]

– вина, виновность

innocence

['inosns]

– невиновность

defendant

[difendqnt]

– ответчик, обвиняемый, подсудимый

to identify

[ai'dentifai]

– опознавать, устанавливать личность, идентифицировать

to associate

[q'souSieit]



to reveal

[ri'vi:l]

– 1)раскрывать, показывать; 2) признаваться, выдавать

embezzlement

[im'bezlmqnt]

– растрата, присвоение денежных средств

to bring smb. to justice –




привлечь кого-либо к суду

to rehabilitate

["ri:q’biliteit]

– исправлять, перевоспитывать

bribery

[brqibqri]

– взяточничество


Questions to the text

1. What is our militia created for?

2. How did the militia work during the history of its existence?

3. What is the aim of militia's activity?

4. What departments is militia composed of?

5. What is the main responsibility of the Criminal Detection De­partment?

6. What are the duties of the officers of the Criminal Investigation Department?


missing person

['misiN'pq:sn]

– пропавший без вести

bank frauds

[bxnk frO:dz]

– банковские махинации

embezzlement

[im'bezlmqnt]

– растрата, присвоение денежных средств

moral offence

['mOrql q'fens]

– моральные преступления

forgery

['fO:Gqri]

– подделка документов, фальшивка

counterfeit

['kquntqfait]

– поддельный, подложный, фальшивый

records department

['rekOd di'pa:tmqnt]

– регистрационный отдел, архив

fingerprint

['fingqprint]

– отпечаток пальца


Read and retell the text


^ CRIME PREVENTION


Crime prevention is one of the main present-day social problems throughout the world. Crime prevention is an effort to decrease and overcome crime. It is an attempt to eliminate the causes of crime, the common mission of law enforcement agencies and society to develop morally in the right direction not only law-abiding citizens but also suspects and criminals. The two very important aspects of the prob­lem are — crime prevention by effective law enforcement and crime prevention as a moral problem.

The government of our country is paying great attention to the problem of crime prevention. The public and the organs standing on guard of law and order are using every opportunity to prevent crime and recidivism. The worker of the militia is not a scientist working in a quiet and isolated laboratory. His laboratory is a whole city with all of its people and all of their needs. That's why crime prevention problem is one of the main tasks of legal education. Future workers of the organs of the Interior are learning to use special means, methods and forms of crime prevention and crime solution. They are learning to obtain information for law enforcement agencies, to patrol streets, to examine a crime scene properly, to se­arch for and collect evidence, to establish corpus delicti, to solve crimes quickly and accurately and to detect and apprehend a crimi­nal, fear of immediate arrest, conviction and punishment being an efficient crime- prevention factor for potential criminals. But the central aspect of the solution of this problem is to be a moral approach requiring extra skills for militia officers. That's why our own future Sherlock Holmeses are dealing with human relations problems. They are learning to establish contacts with the public, they are supervi­sing difficult teenagers and potential criminals, an intelligent, dis­ciplined militia officer with high morality standard being in himself an effective crime prevention instrument.

Special crime prevention divisions of the Militia are functioning now in close cooperation with the Public in private residences, schools, transportation systems and commercial areas, the Public-Militia crime prevention centres being one of the forms of our crime prevention programme. Public order squads or «people's druzhinniks» are also taking part in this process now. They are patrolling streets at night combatting petty offences.

Prevention of juvenile delinquency is one of the important mili­tia's and public's tasks too. The militia personnel of the inspection and commissions for the affairs of minors of executive committees of local Soviets are paying special attention to the juveniles of «problem» families rendering them the necessary assistance. They are to view their life and behavior using such means as persuasion, control, supervision, social and individual influence and law enforcement trying to turn them onto the right track.

Our corrective labour institutions are trying to reform the offen­ders and to return them to an honest life of labour.

Street crime prevention, traffic safety, combatting drug traffick­ing and organized crime are also the matters of militia's con­cern.

The militia and the public are combining their efforts in the strug­gle against alcoholism since the drunk driver is causing thousands of injuries and needless deaths.

The militia together with social organizations are constantly seeking the best forms and methods of crime prevention, explanation of the law to the citizens playing an important part.

The efforts to prevent crime were not unsuccessful in our society. However we are planning to do much more.


Questions to the text.


  1. What is crime prevention?

  2. What are the two aspects of the problem?

  3. Is our government working much at this problem?

  4. Are future workers of the Militia dealing with this problem?

  5. How are they preparing to solve this problem?

  6. What are they doing?

  7. What are the main aspects of crime prevention work for militia and the public?

  8. What problems are the public order squads dealing with?




throughout

[Tru:'aut]

через, по всему

decrease

[di:'kri:s]

уменьшать

overcome

["ouvq'kAm]

преодо­леть, победить

cause n, v

[kO:z]

дело, причина, причинять

law-abiding

['lO:q'baidiN]

соблюдающий закон

government

['gAvqmqnt]

правительство

law and order




правопорядок

opportunity

["Opq'tju:niti]

возможность

properly

['prOpqli]

должным образом

fear

[fiq]

страх

conviction

[kqn'vikSqn]

осуж­дение, обвинение

punishment

['pAniSmqnt]

наказание

approach

[q'prouC]

подход

require

[ri'kwaiq]

требовать

human relations

['hju:mqn]

человеческие отношения

close cooperation

['klous kou"Opq'reiSqn ]

тесное взаимо­действие

Public-Militia crime prevention centres

['sqntq]

пункты охраны общественного по­рядка

public order squads

[skwOdz]

дружинники

combat n, v

['kOmbqt]

бороться

petty

['peti]

мелкий

offence

[q'fens]

преступление, правонарушение

offender

[q'fendq]

правонару­шитель, преступник

minor

['maimq]

несовершенно­летний, подросток

executive

[ig'zekjutiv]

исполнительный

traffic

['trxfik]

движение; торговля

render

['rendq]

оказывать

behaviour

[bi'heivjq]

поведение

persuasion

[pq'sweiZqn]

убеждение

supervision

["sju:pq'viZOn]

наблюдение, надзор

influence

['influqns]

влияние

try

[trai]

пытаться

turn

[tq:n]

направлять, повернуть

matter

['mxtq]

дело

concern

[kqn'sq:n]

интерес

drunk

[drANk]

пьяный

injury

['inGqri]

вред

constantly

['kOnstqntli]

постоянно

seek

[sl:k]

искать

explanation

["eksplq'neiSn]

разъяснение, объяснение

success

[sqk'ses]

успех

use

[ju:z]

применять, использовать

special means, methods and forms of crime solution

['speSql] ['mi:nz]['meTqdz] [sq'lu:Sqn]

специальные средства, методы и формы предотвращения преступлений (paскрытия преступлений) - (crime solution)


investigate, examine, search, observe, inspect, survey a crime scene



[sq:'vei]



осматривать место пришествия

collect (lift) evidence

['evidqns]

собирать (изымать) доказательства

apprehend a criminal

["xpri'hend]

задерживать преступника

establish corpus delicti

['kO:pqs dl:'liktai]

установить состав преступления

juvenile, teenager

['dZu:vinail] ['ti:neiGq]

подросток, несовершеннолетний

deal with

['di:l wiD]

обращаться, иметь дело с чем-либо, рассматривать вопрос

establish contact




устанавливать контакт

solve a crime quickly and accurately

[sOlv] ['xkjuritli]

раскрывать преступление быстро и полно

patrol streets

[pq'troul]

патрулировать улицы

traffic law enforcement

[in'fO:smqnt]

дорожный надзор

supervise

['sju:pqvaiz]

осуществлять шефство, надзор, наблюдение

traffic regulations rules

[,regju'leiSqnz]

правила уличного движения

to obtain (get) information




получать сведения информацию



Read and retell the text


INTERPOL


Interpol is-an international corporation founded in 1923 as a service organization devoted to coordinating actions against international criminals. Its clients are 174 agencies throughout the world. This organi­zation is not under the control or supervision of any government.

Interpol is a recognized intergovernmental police force whose task is to hunt down the international criminal. A multinational force, much like the United Nations, Interpol is made up of police of the Free World and a bona fide law enforcement agency in its own right. Among the first to fight international terrorism and sky-jackings, Interpol still leads the war on narcotics, assists a number of nations in the continuing search for wanted Nazi war criminals. One of the most highly respected groups in the world, Interpol, like any other police force is under gov­ernmental control to safeguard the basic rights of every citizen. It oper­ates according to a strict code of behavior and adheres to the highest ethical standards.

Interpol has never been recognized or established by any international charter or treaty and has no police powers. Because of Interpol's cooperation with the UN particularly in the area of drugs, Interpol was recognized as an intergovernmental organization. .

Interpol members are, for the most part, police and not govern­mental representatives, although certain governments have sent ob­servers from their military, intelligence, customs, post office, and im­migration departments.

Interpol does not have powers of arrest or any investigative rights. Its function is to disseminate information. Today 80 percent of the per­manent staff is French. Interpol is much like any large corporation with bureaus in various countries and with representatives from these offices also stationed at the main office. Information is exchanged between the many national bureaus, but the police forces themselves are subject to the laws and policies of their respective nations.

Interpol is divided into four main bodies the General Assembly, the Executive Committee, the General Secretariat and the National Central Bureaus.

The General Assembly is composed of the delegates from each member country. It is «the Supreme Authority». The General Assembly controls the policy of the organization.

The Executive Committee is a nine-member board made-up of the president, two vice-presidents, and six delegates chosen by the General Assembly.

The General Secretariat, the permanent body, located in Lion, is Interpol's business division. It contains the «permanent departments» four of which specialize in certain crimes: one handles murder, burglary, assault, larceny, car theft, and missing persons; another deals with bank frauds and other types of embezzlement; a third, with drug traffic and morals offenses; and a fourth deals with forgery and counterfeiting.

Other divisions are the general records department, where files are kept, and a special records department, where fingerprints and other methods of identification are used.

The National Central Bureaus are the Interpol offices in various countries. Each NCB is empowered to communicate directly with and exchange information with any other NCB.


Some new words to the text:


to recognize

['rekqgnaiz]

узнавать, признавать

to hunt down

[hAnt daun]

выследить, поймать

bona fide

["bqunq'faidi]

добросовестный, настоящий

sky-jacking

[skai'GxkiN]

воздушный пират

wonted

[wOntid]

разыскивается

to safeguard

['seifga:d]

гарантировать, защищать

to adhere

[qd'hiq]

придерживаться, оставаться верным (принципам и т. д.)

charter

[CRtq]

хартия, устав (ООН)

treaty

['tri:ti]

(международный) договор, соглашения

representative

["repri'zentqtiv]

представитель, депутат палаты представителей

observer

['qbzq:vq]

наблюдатель

intelligence

[in'teliGqns]

разведывательная служба, разведка

customs

['kAstqmz]

таможня, таможенная пошлина

to dissiminate

['di'simineit]

распространять

permanent

['pq:mqnqnt]

постоянный

bureaus

[bjuq'rou]

бюро, офис

to subject

[sqb'Gekt]

подчинять, покорять (to)

murder

['mq:dq]

тяжкое убийство

burglary

['bq:glqri]

кража со взломом

assault

[q'sO:lt]

нападение, словесное оскорбление и угроза физическим насилием

larceny

['lRsni]

кража, воровство

car theft

[kR Teft]

угон автомобиля


Read and retell the text


^ OBSERVATION OF A CRIME SCENE


What is a crime scene? The crime scene means the place or the area where the crime such as burglary, larceny, homicide, traffic crime or motor vehicle theft, etс. takes place. The scene is the central location toward which all evidence points before, during and after the crime.

Crime scene search is an action of the investigator consisting of his direct survey of the happening, finding, collecting and protecting evidence to estab­lish circumstances which are significant for the investigation. To observe and examine a crime scene properly is essential for quick and accurate crime solution. It is one of the most important sources of information concerning commission of the crime which enables the officer to answer with specific details the questions: What? Where? When? How? Why? Who? and What for?

Not infrequently an experienced investigator manages to narrow the investigation and search down to a single individual after a careful study of the crime scene.

The process of a crime scene search usually includes a preliminary, general observation, a detailed search and the final stages.

At the preliminary stage the investigator keeps in mind the problems of ensuring crime scene protection, preparation of proper crime techniques, choosing and instructing witnesses, getting information of the happening. And of course he gives first aid to a victim if it's necessary or calls for an ambulance.

At the stage of general observation the investigator is to observe the general appearance of the situation noting everything at the scene. To conduct a crime scene search properly the investigator must reconstruct the happening, analyze the operational conditions, make an estimate of the situation and develop and follow a definite way of doing his job. He makes a plan for the search and informs the participants of the search what and where to search minding not to destroy and overlook any valuable evidence. He also ensures taking pictures of the scene and its objects, making plaster casts of footprints and developing and taking fingerprints.

At the stage of detailed examination the investigator tries to answer a lot of different questions: Is it possible to identify the salient features of criminal's modus operandi? What are these features? Where was the entrance to the scene? What approaches are there to the scene? What was the criminal's way of entering it? Are there any traces of criminal act, e. g. fingerprints, footmarks, blood stains on the objects? Whose prints are they? Was the criminal moving any objects from their positions? Was the criminal alone or in a company with another? Do they always work together? What were they going to do? What instruments do they usually use? What instruments was the criminal using in this case? Are there cigarette stubs or ashes? Does the criminal smoke cigars or cigarettes? Was he smoking at the crime scene? Who can it be? What are his distinctive marks? What is the most unusual feature of his appearance? How does he dress? What was strange in his actions? Why does he behave so strangely? The successful investigator does not forget to note negative facts: Why is the weapon absent? Why are there no fingerprints or blood stains when it is natural to find them? etc. The answers to all those and many other questions help the investigator to build a hypothesis of the crime commission.

At the final part of observation the investigator makes conclusions taking into consideration all available information, packs the traces of the crime for a crime laboratory, makes a record of the crime scene observation and if necessary brings a criminal action.


Some new words for the text:


area

['Fqriq ]

n - площадь, район, область

point

[point ]

v - указывать

circumstances

['sq:kqmstqnsiz]

n - обстоятельства

significant

[sig'nifikqnt]

a - значительный, важный, существенный

enable

[i'neibl]

v - давать возможность

frequently

['fri:kwqntli ]

adv-часто

narrow

['nxrou ]

v - суживать (ся), уменьшать (ся)

preliminary

[pri'liminqri]

a - предварительный

witness




n - зд. понятой

participant

[pa:'tisipqnt ]

n - участник

mind

[maind]

n - разум, память

mind




v - помнить, заботиться

overlook

[["ouvq' luk ]

v -1. проглядеть, 2. не заметить

blood

[blAd ]

n - кровь

stain

[stein]

n - пятно

instrument

['instrumqnt]

n - орудие

stub

[stAb ]

n - окурок

ash

[xS]

n - зола, пепел

striking

['straikiN]

a- (no)разительный, замечательный

dress

[dres]

v- одеваться

behave

[bi'heiv ]

v - вести себя

burglary

['bq:glqri]

насильственное проникновение с целью совершения преступ­ления, кража со взломом

larceny

['la:sni]

воровство

theft

[Teft]

воровство, кража

homicide

['hOmisaid ]

убийство, лишение человека жизни

traffic crime

['trxfik]

дорожное преступление

motor vehicle

['moutq'vi:ikl]

автомобиль, машина

motor vehicle theft (auto theft)

['O:tou] [Teft]и |

угон автомашины

to give first aid to a victim




оказать первую помощь потерпевшему

call for an ambulance

['xmbjulqns]

вызвать машину скорой помощи

reconstruct the happening




мысленно воссоздать происшедшее (события, преступления)

make an estimate of ...

['estimit]

оценить что-либо

make plaster casts

['pla:stq 'ka:sts]

снимать гипсовые слепки

fingerprints

['fiNgqprint ]

следы пальцев

footprints (footmarks)

['futprint]


следы ног

develop and take fingerprints




проявить и снять следы пальцев

take pictures of...




фотографировать

build a hypothesis

[hai'pOTisis]

выдвинуть версию

make the conclusions

[kqn'klu:Zqnz]

делать выводы

pack the traces of the crime




упаковать вещественные доказательства (следы преступления)

crime laboratory




криминалистическая лаборатория

make a record




составить протокол

take into consideration




принять во внимание

bring a criminal action




возбудить уголовное дело


Questions to the text:

  1. What is a crime scene?

  2. What crimes do you know?

  3. What is a crime scene search?

  4. What actions of the investigator does it consist of?

  5. What questions should an investigator answer during the crime scene search?

  6. What stages does the process of crime search usually include?

  7. What problems does the investigator solve during the preliminary observation? (at the stage of general observation? at the stage of detailed examination?)

  8. What does the investigator do at the final part of observation?


Read and retell the text


^ INVESTIGATION OF CRIME


Criminal investigation is the keystone of the police service and in the structure of the detective function. Investigation means a search. It means a search for the truth, for the offender, for witnesses who help to reconstruct the happening and will present evidence of it in court. Criminal investigation is indispensable to learn whether an accident involves a crime and if so who is responsible. As for the police work (he investigation is an inquiry into the facts surrounding the commission of the criminal offence, i.e. what it is, where it was, who the offender was, when, why and how he was committing the crime.

No successful investigation is available without participating a highly professional policeman who possesses such attributes of the policeman's profession as dedication, courage, intelligence, competency, self-command, specialized investigative aptitudes and professional instinct, i.e. some sleuthing powers. To ferret out of serious crimes and detect those who commit them а police officer should do his best in performing his job. He should be knowledgeable not only in theoretical fundamentals of law enforcement but he should also be skilled in such policeman's functions as marksmanship, driving a patrol car, communicating with the public. All that helps him in maintaining proper police-public relations and in his decision-making judgement.

Thus frustrating the efforts of professional criminals and quick and accurate solution of crime depends very much on proper special training, education and selection of police officers. It also depends on their skills in undercover work-laying an ambush and conducting surveillance, penetrating the underworld, work with the informants, their choosing, cultivating and usage. The informant is a person who gives the police officer confidential information about a crime as his civic responsibility and duty. A police officer operating in plain clothes often comes to know personally the offenders of the specific criminal specially their friends, their relatives and close associates, and becomes familiar with salient features of their modus operandi.

In case the investigating officer works at the crime scene he defines the crime quickly and examines the scene very carefully before he touches and disturbs anything. He takes active measures to detect the offender, that is to identify, locate and apprehend the suspect or criminal. He usually takes pictures of the scene and its objects and makes a plan on which he records the position of any trace. He collects and protects evidence, interviews witnesses and details a number of other factors, e.g. search of the premises and persons for discovery of stolen property and instruments of the crime. Then he examines all the evidence to establish evidence of guilt against a person responsible for a crime.

No doubt quick and accurate crime investigation and solution, catching, neutralizing and bringing the criminal to justice is essential. At the same time a very much more important and difficult thing is crime prevention. In order to function effectively in crime prevention the professional poliсеman estab­lishes contacts with the public and maintains positive attitudes about the citizens he serves. If understanding is lacking, then decision-making judgement and general performance of the policeman in the field will be less effective. The better he understands the people, the better he manages to perform his duty.


Some new words for the text:

reconstruct the happening

['ri:kqns'trAkt]

мысленно воссоздать происшедшее

involve

[in'vOlv]

v - вовлекать, включать в себя

inquiry

[in'kwaiqri]

n - расследование, исследование

surround

[sq'raund]

v - окружать

commission

[kq'miSqn]

n - зд. совершение

successful

[sqk'sesful]

a - преуспевающий, успешный

available

[q'veilqbl]

a -доступный, имеющийся в

распоряжении

participate

[pa:'tisipeit]

v - участвовать

attribute

['xtribju:t]

n - свойство, характерный признак

dedication

["dedi'keiSqn]

n - преданность, самоотверженность

courage

['kAriG]

n - храбрость, смелость, отвага

competence

['kOmpitqns ]

n-способность, умение, компетентность

knowledgeable

['nOliGqbl]

a - хорошо осведомленный

fundamentals

[fAndq'mentlz]

n-основы

marksmanship

['ma:rksmqnSip]

n - меткая стрельба

maintain

[men'tein ]

v - поддерживать, сохранять

usage

['ju:siG]

n - употребление

civic

['sivik ]

a - гражданский

premises

['premisiz]

n - помещение, дом

take pictures of




фотографировать

record

[ri'kO:d]

v - записывать, протоколировать

detail

[ 'di:teil]

v - входить в подробности

lack

[lxk ]

v - 1. испытывать недостаток,

нуждаться, не иметь;

2. не хватать, недоставать.


Special Vocabulary for Oral Speech:

keystone

['ki:stoun]

ключевой камень, основной принцип

function

['fANkSqn]

функция, функционировать

do one's best




делать все возможное

combine

['kOmbain]

объединять, комбинировать

depend on (upon)

[di'pend]

зависеть oт

effort

['efqt]

усилие, попытка

intelligence

[in'teliGqns]

ум, интеллект

decision-making judgement

[di'siZqn] [GAGmqnt]

умение правильно принять решение

possess

[pq'zqs]

обладать, владеть

aptitude

['xptitju:d]

склонность, способность

sleuthing powers

['slu:TiN' pauqz]

сыскные способности

manage

['mxniG]

справляться, ухитряться

ferret out (of serious crimes) etc.

['ferit]

выискивать, разведывать, собирать информацию (о серьезных преступлениях) и т.д.

frustrate (the efforts, plans, etc.)

[frAs'treit]

расстраивать, срывать (попытки, планы и т.д.)

operate in plain clothes

[klouDz]

работать в штатской одежде

lay an ambush

['lei qn' xmbuS]

устраивать засаду

a plain-clothes man, a sleuth, a CID man

[slu:T]

сыщик

come to know




узнать

specialty

['speSqlti]

основное занятие, особенность, специальность

distinctive marks

[dis'tiNktiv' ma:ks]

приметы

relative (s)

['relqtiv]

родственник (и)

close associate

['klous q'souSiit]

близкий соучастник

become familiar

[fq'miljq ]

познакомиться

salient feature

['seiljqnt 'fi:tSq]

характерная (выдающаяся) особенность

modus operandi

['moudqs' Opqrqndi]

способ действия (лат.)

cultivate

['kAltiveit]

воспитывать

informant

[in'fO:mqnt]

источник информации

confidential

["kOnfi'denSql]

секретный

common sense

['kOmqn'sens]

здравый смысл

define

[di'fain]

определять (квалифицировать)

touch

[tAC]

(при) кacaться

disturb

[dis'tq:b]

беспокоить, нарушать

take active measures

['meZq]

принять действенные меры

catch

[kxC]

поймать

neutralize

['nju:trqlaiz]

обезвредить

bring the criminal to justice




привлечь преступника к уголовной ответственности

conduct search, discovery and seizure


[dis'kAvqri] l'si:Zq]

проводить обыск, обнаружение и изъятие

stolen property

['stoulqn]

похищенное имущество

instrument of a crime

['instrumqnt ]

орудие преступления

not infrequently

[in'fri:kwqntli]

нередко

overt

['ouvq:t ]

гласный

undercover (covert)

['Andq"kAvq] ['kAvqt]

негласный

penetrate

['penitreit]

внедряться

surveillance

[sq:'veilqns ]

негласный надзор

underworld

['Andqwq:ld]

преступный мир


Question to the text.

  1. What is the keystone of the police and militia service?

  2. What does crime detection mean for the police officer?

  3. What are the aspects of a detective function?

  4. Who is an informant?

  5. What are the main principles of the under cover work?

  6. What are the functions of the police officer at the crime scene?

  7. What is essential for quick and accurate crime investigation?


Read and retell the text


^ ROUTINE POLICE WORK


As you know criminal investigation is the keystone of American police services, its law enforcement. But according to available estimates for some past period of time only one-third of police manpower resources dealt with crime and criminals, the other two-thirds of them - with non-law enforcement or so called "peace-keeping" activities. You did not read much about police peace­keeping activities as their everyday mundane duties or routine police work, did you?

The data collected show that the great majority of incidents the police handled arose when the police responded to citizen calls for service - a citizen telephoned the police and the dispatcher directed a radio-equipped patrol car to deal with the situation. The police officer became implicated in a wide range of human troubles many of which had little or nothing to do with criminal law enforcement. He transported people to the hospital, wrote reports of auto accidents, and arbitrated and mediated between disputants - neighbours, husbands and wives, landlords and tenants, and businessmen and customers. He took missing person reports, directed traffic, controlled crowds at fires, wrote dogbite reports, and identified abandoned autos. He removed safety hazards from the streets, quieted noisy, parties, radios and television, evicted a drunken person from a bar and occasionally scooped up a dead animal. Policemen also spent much of their time with "juvenile troubles". So in the line of his everyday duties a policeman directed, vaided; informed, pacified, warned, disciplined, etc. - in short, contributed to the maintenance of the peace and order.

The officers usually began their shift after roll call. Once the squad car manned by two officers was on the street patrolling the beat - cruising, looking for traffic violations, stolen cars or unsecured business - the officers took their instructions from a radio dispatcher from time to time. You see that the telephone and dispatch room became the centre of contemporary precincts.

Both the dispatchers in their radio calls and the police officers in their records preferred to give the tersest description of the incidents. They used such abbreviations as "B" and "E" (breaking or/and entering), "family trouble" or "domestic", "silent alarm", "somebody screaming", "a theft report", "a man down" (person lying in a public place, cause unknown), "outside ringer" (burglar-alarm ringing), "the boys" (trouble with juveniles) or "kids disturbing", P.I.(personal-injury automobile accident), DK (drunk), PD (property damage automobile accident), H-and-R (Hit-and-Run) and suchlike. We see they used some kind of police slang.

That is a very incomplete list of routine police work that the officer performed over the period covered.) Frankly speaking, policemen disdained this kind of work but they did it every day.


Some new words for the text:

available

[q'veilqbl ]

а -доступный, имеющийся в распоря­жении

estimate

['estimit ]

n - оценка, смета

estimate

['estimeit ]

v - оценивать

manpower

['mxn"pauq ]

n - рабочая сила, личный состав, людские ресурсы

arise(arose, arisen)

[q'raiz, q'rouz, q'rizn ]

v - возникать

respond

[ris'pOnd ]

v - реагировать

call

[kO:l ]

n - вызов

equip

[i'kwip ]

v - оборудовать

implicate

['implikeit]

v - вовлекать

range

[reinG ]

n - область, круг

have smth. to do with ...




иметь что-либо общее с ...

mediate

['mi:dieit ]

v - посредничать

missing person

['misiN]

пропавший без вести

landlord

['lxnlO:d]

n - владелец дома, хозяин гостиницы

tenant

['tenqnt]

жилец, наниматель

customer

['kAstqmq]

n - заказчик, покупатель, клиент

bite (bit, bitten)




v - кусаться

scoop up

[sku:p ]

v - поднимать, убирать

animal

['xnimql]

n - животное

in the line of duty




в процессе выполнения служебных обязанностей

warn

[wO:n ]

v - предупреждать

aid

[eid]

v - помогать

man

[mxn ]

v - воен. укомплектовывать личным составом

violation

["vaiq'leifSqn]

n - нарушение

steal (stole, stolen)

[sti:l, stoul,'stoulqn]

v - воровать, красть, зд. угонять

secure

[sikjuq ]

v - охранять

business

['biznis ]

n - торговое предприятие, фирма

husband

['hAzbqnd]

n - муж

wife

[waif]

n - жена

contemporary

[kqn'tempqrqri]

a - современный

prefer

[pri'fq:]

v - предпочитать

abbreviate

[q'bri:vieit]

v - сокращать

abbreviation

[q"bri:vi'eiSqn]

n - сокращение

terse

[tq:s]

v - сжатый, выразительный

break (broke, broken)




n - зд. взламывать

domestic

[dq'mestik]

a - зд. бытовой

alarm

[q'la:m]

n - боевая тревога

silent alarm

['sailqnt ]

защитное устройство; сигнал защитного устройства, используемый на предприятиях, сигнализация

scream

[skri:m]

v - пронзительно кричать, вопить

theft

[Teft ]

n - воровство, кража

lie (lay, lain)




v - лежать

cause

[kO:z ]

n - причина

ring (rang, rung)




v - звонить

burglar

['bq:glq]

n - вор-взломщик

kid

[kid]

n - разг. ребенок, парнишка

disturb

[dis'tq:b ]

v - беспокоить, мешать

injury

['inGqri]

n - вред, повреждение, рана, ушиб

damage

['dxmiG]

n - вред, повреждение, ущерб

hit (hit, hit)




v - ударять(ся)

hit-and-run




преступление, в результате которого шофер,

сбивший человека, скрылся, не оказав помощи

run (ran, run)




v - бежать, бегать

run over




переехать, задавить

incomplete

["inkqmpli:t]

а - неполный, незаконченный

cover

['kAvq]

v-охватывать

disdain

[dis'dein ]

v - презирать

occasionally

[q'keiZnqli]

время от времени, иногда

trouble

['trAbl]

беспокойство, неприятности, горе, беда


Special Vocabulary for Oral Speech (Part II):

mundane

['mAndein]

светский, земной (простой)

routine

[ru:'ti:n ]

определенный, обычный, текущий;

распорядок службы

incident

['insidqnt]

случай, происшествие, инцидент

peace-keeping activity




деятельность по охране спокойствия (порядка)

beat

[bi:t ]

дозор, обход, район

precinct

['pri:siNkt]

полицейский участок (амер.)

cruise

[kru:z ]

совершать рейсы

squad

[skwOd]

отделение, команда

squad car




оперативная машина

auto accident

['O:tou'xksidqnt]

дорожно-транспортное

происшествие

arbitrate

['a:bitreit ]

принимать произвольное решение

disputant

[dis'pju:tqnt]

спорщик

neighbour

['neibq]

сосед

crowd

[kraud ]

толпа

fire

['faiq]

пожар

abandoned

[a'bxndqnd ]

покинутый

remove

[ri'mu:v]

удалять, убирать

hazard

['hxzqd]

риск, опасность

quiet

['kwaiqt ]

успокаивать

evict

[i:'vikt ]

выселять, изгонять

drunken

['drANkqn ]

пьяный

pacify

['pxsifai]

умиротворять, успокаивать

warn

[wO:n]

предупреждать, предостерегать

law-breaker




правонарушитель

contribute

[kqn'tribju:t]

содействовать, способствовать делать вклад

maintenance

['meintinqns ]

поддержание, сохранение

peace and order




правопорядок

radio dispatcher

['reidiou dis'pxCq]

радиодиспетчер

acquaintance

[q'kweintqns]

знакомый

get acquainted with smb.




познакомиться

shift

[Sift]

смена

roll call

['roul kO:l]

перекличка, оперативное совещание, планерка, развод

wanted

['wOntid]

разыскиваемый

respond

[ris'pOnd]

реагировать


Questions to the text.

  1. What percentage of police manpower resources dealt with non-low enforcement activities according to available estimates?

  2. And what percentage dealt with law enforcement activities?

  3. Did you read much about police keeping activities as their everyday mundane duties, i.e. about routine police work?

  4. When did the majority of incidents the police handled arise?

  5. Did the police officer become implicated in a wide range of human troubles?

  6. What did the police officer have to do?

  7. When did the officers usually begin their shift?

  8. What did the officer do during motopatrolling?

  9. What language did the police officers prefer to use in their operational work?

  10. Did the policemen disdain their mundane duties?

  11. Is this work necessary for maintaining law and order?


^ FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION,

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE


a) General Investigation Division

The FBU formally called the Bureau of Investigation, was created primarily to handle criminal investigations for the Department of Jus­tice.

The FBI responsibilities continue to grow each year.

The FBI handles over 180 different investigations including Federal criminal violations1, internal security matters and civil inquiries2 in which the Government has an interest.

Since 1945, over 95 percent of the cases investigated by its agents which came before the courts have resulted in convictions3.




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